Peri implantitis is the inflammation of the tissues around the implant .
Bone is located around the healty implants and outer part is surrounded by gum and soft tissues. Peri implantitis , first effects the gum if no treatment is implemented it effects the bone around the implant and causes to bone loss. If not interfered the loss of the implant is ineluctable .
In intraoral examination , bleeding and inflammation in the gum can be detected. Also bone loss begins around the implant and it can be seen clearly on the X-Ray.In the later stages it is seen the bone around the implant is completely lost and the cap on the implant is moving. In this case the implant must be removed.
The main reason of peri implantitis is the presence of gum disease. The gum disease called periodontitis which is characterized by pocket formation and resorption of the bone surrounding the root of the teeth.If it is not treated it causes bone loss around the teeth and teeth loss because of swinging . In the presence of periodontitis , all of the teeth's condition will get worse and the tissues around the implant will get infected.
The patients with poor oral hygene are in high risk group about having periimplantitis. Also incorrectly made prostheses and implant supported dentures and bridges cause periimplantitis.
Bone resorption and periimplantitis is seen more at people that smoke too much , consumes alcohol or has teeth grinding habit.
Faulty implant planning leads to loss of implants in the long term. The number of implants to be inserted, the length and diameter of the implant, type of implant placement , place of the implants to be applied, the kind of prosthesis which will be held on the implants are some of the criteria to be considered in determining implant planning .
Peri implantitis treatment primarily begins with regularly and correct tooth brushing, flossing and using interdental brushes, if necessary.
The aim of treatment of periimplantitis is finding the factors that lead to disease and eliminate them. Special curettes or laser treatment is applied to destroy the pocket formation at the soft tissue around the implant .
If bone resorption around the implant has occurred , gingival flap should be removed to clean diseased soft tissue around the implant.
To stop the bone loss around the implant, bone powder is placed around the implant and membrane covered over it.